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Cognition and Learning

Some children find learning more difficult than their peers and this can be for different reasons. If children experience long term difficulties and need additional support which is different to that of their peers in order to make progress, then they may have cognition and learning difficulties. Dyslexia, Dyspraxia, DCD (Developmental Coordination Disorder) and Dyscalculia are all types of cognition and learning difficulties or specific learning difficulties. 


Some children may experience the following difficulties if they have this learning need:

  • Particular difficulty with reading and/or spelling. 
  • Putting letters and figures the wrong way round. 
  • Still occasionally confuses 'b' and 'd' and words such as 'no/on'. 
  • Leaves letters out of words or puts them in the wrong order. 
  • Still needs to use fingers to count or workings out to make simple calculations. 
  • Has difficulty remembering times tables, the alphabet, written methods in Maths etc. 
  • Weaker concentration in subjects they find harder but surprises you because in other ways he/she is bright and alert.
  • Has problems understanding what he/she has read because they have focused so hard on the actual reading. 
  • Takes longer than their peers to do written work. 
  • Problems processing information at speed.
  • Problems remembering information or instructions.
  • May have difficulty with tying shoelaces, ties, or organising clothes when dressing. 
  • May have a poor sense of direction and may still confuses left and right. 
  • May lack confidence and has a poor self image as a learner. 



Dyslexia means long term difficulties with word level (reading and spelling) literacy skills. It also affects the way information is processed, stored and retrieved. People may have difficulties with memory, speed of processing, time perception, organisation and sequencing. 


The Kent Policy for Dyslexia states that school staff should have the skills necessary to identify and support any child who has long term difficulties with word level literacy skills (Dyslexia). Teachers can identify children who have persistent difficulties with reading and spelling. This does not have to be carried out by external specialists. This can be done by using standardised reading and spelling tests to measure rates of progress and simple assessments of phonological processing skills. At River we use standardised tests and assessments of phonological processing skills alongside screening tools such as the GL assessment Dyslexia Screener or the Dyslexia Portfolio. These provide further information for parents and school staff about a child's word level skills. Staff receive training each year to ensure they are able to identify and support children with Cognition and Learning difficulties in the classroom.


If you have concerns about any aspect of your child's learning, please speak to your child's class teacher or Ms Moody. 

Dyspraxia/ DCD (Developmental Coordination Disorder


This content is under construction.



This content is under construction